A crash course in UML state machines: Part 2
To read Part 1, go to "The over simplification of the event-action paradigm"
To read Part 3, go to "Designing a UML state machine"
Though the traditional FSMs are an excellent tool for tackling smaller problems, it's also generally known that they tend to become unmanageable, even for moderately involved systems. Due to the phenomenon known as state explosion, the complexity of a traditional FSM tends to grow much faster than the complexity of the reactive system it describes.
This happens because the traditional state machine formalism inflicts repetitions. For example, if you try to represent the behavior of the Visual Basic calculator (introduced in Part 1 in this series) with a traditional FSM, you'll immediately notice that many events (e.g., the Clear event) are handled identically in many states. A conventional FSM, however, has no means of capturing such a commonality and requires repeating the same actions and transitions in many states. What's missing in the traditional state machines is the mechanism for factoring out the common behavior in order to share it across many states.
The formalism of statecharts, invented by David Harel in the 1980s, addresses exactly this shortcoming of the conventional FSMs.1 Statecharts provide a very efficient way of sharing behavior so that the complexity of a statechart no longer explodes but tends to faithfully represent the complexity of the reactive system it describes. Obviously, formalism like this is a godsend to embedded systems programmers (or any programmers working with event-driven systems) because it makes the state machine approach truly applicable to real-life problems.
UML state machines, known also as UML statecharts,2 are object-based variants of Harel statecharts and incorporate several concepts defined in ROOMcharts, a variant of the statechart defined in the Real-time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) language.3 UML statecharts are extended state machines with characteristics of both Mealy and Moore automata. In statecharts, actions generally depend on both the state of the system and the triggering event, as in a Mealy automaton. Additionally, UML statecharts provide optional entry and exit actions, which are associated with states rather than transitions, as in a Moore automaton.
Reuse of behavior in reactive systems
All reactive systems seem to reuse behavior in a similar way. For example, the characteristic look and feel of all GUIs results from the same pattern, which the Windows guru Charles Petzold calls the "Ultimate Hook".4 The pattern is brilliantly simple: A GUI system dispatches every event first to the application (e.g., Windows calls a specific function inside the application, passing the event as an argument). If not handled by the application, the event flows back to the system. This establishes a hierarchical order of event processing.
The application, which is conceptually at a lower level of the hierarchy, has the first shot at every event; thus the application can choose to react in any way it likes. At the same time, all unhandled events flow back to the higher level (i.e., to the GUI system), where they are processed according to the standard look and feel. This is an example of programming by difference because the application programmer needs to code only the differences from the standard system behavior.
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