We have witnessed the Fixed Internet emerging with virtually every computer being connected today and we are currently witnessing the emergence of the Mobile Internet with the exponential explosion of smart phones, tablets and net-books.
However, both will be dwarfed by the anticipated emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which everyday objects are able to connect to the Internet, tweet or by direct query.
Whilst the impact onto economies and societies around the world is undisputed, the technologies facilitating such a ubiquitous connectivity have struggled so far and only recently commenced to take shape.
To this end, this paper introduces the cornerstones of a technically and commercially viable standard IoT platform and includes a detailed discussion of the particular standards chosen at each protocol layer.
It includes a protocol stack shown to meet the important criteria of power-efﬁciency, reliability and Internet connectivity. Industrial applications have been the early adopters of this stack, which has become the de-facto standard, thereby bootstraping early IoT developments.
Corroborated throughout this paper and by emerging industry alliances, we believe that a standardized approach, using latest developments in the IEEE 802.15.4 and IETF working groups, is the only way forward.
We introduce and relate key embodiments of the power-efﬁcient IEEE 802.15.4-2006 PHY layer, the power-saving and reliable IEEE 802.15.4e MAC layer, the IETF 6LoWPAN adaptation layer enabling universal Internet connectivity, the IETF ROLL routing protocol enabling availability, and ﬁnally, the IETF CoAP enabling seamless transport and support of Internet applications.
The protocol stack proposed in the present work converges towards the standardized notations of the ISO/OSI and TCP/IP stacks. What thus seemed impossible some years back – building a clearly deﬁned, standards-compliant and Internet-compliant stack given the extreme restrictions of IoT networks – is commencing to become reality.
(** Co-authors of this article are: Nicola Accettura, Luigi Alfredo Griecoy, and Gennaro Boggiay, Bari Polytechnic Institute, Italy; Xavier Vilajosana,Oberta University, Catalonia, Spain; Thomas Watteyne, Linear Technology; and Mischa Dohler, Telecommunications Technology Center, Catalonia, Spain. )
To read this external content in full, download the paper from the author online archives. http://telematics.poliba.it/publications/2013/SurveyIoT13.pdf