What's the cheapest way to get rid of bugs? Don't put them in in the first place.
That seemingly trite statement is the idea behind the entire quality revolution that reinvented manufacturing during the 1970s. Design quality in rather than try to fix a lot of problems during production.
Most people under 40 have no memory of the quality problems U.S. automotive vendors inflicted on their customers for many years. I remember my folks buying cars in the 1960s. With five kids on a single-income engineer's salary, my dad's primary decision parameters (mom was never consulted on such a purchase) were size (a big station wagon) and price. Choices were mostly limited to the Big Three. With the exception of the even-then ubiquitous VW Beetle, foreign manufacturers had made few inroads into this market. But Detroit's offerings were always plagued with problems, from small nuisance issues to major drivetrain troubles. Consumers had no recourse since all of the vendors offered the same poor quality. Perhaps foreshadowing today's low expectations about commercial software, car buyers 40 years ago accepted the fact that vehicles were full of problems, and many trips to the dealer to get these cleared up was simply part of the process of acquiring a new car.
About the same time, Japanese products had a well-deserved bad reputation. "Made in Japan" and "junk" were synonymous. But Japanese managers became a student of quality guru W. Edwards Deming, who showed how a single-minded focus on cost at the expense of quality was suicidal. They eventually shifted production to a low-waste system with an unyielding focus on designing quality in. The result: better autos at a lower cost. Detroit couldn't compete. (Of course, many other factors contributed to the U.S. firms' 1970s' woes. But cash-strapped American buyers found the lure of lower-cost high-quality foreign cars irresistible.)
U.S. vendors scrambled to compete using, at first, marketing rather than substance. "Quality is Job One" became Ford's tagline in 1975. Buyers continued to flock to less self-aggrandizing manufacturers who spoke softly but carried few defects. But by the very early 1980s, Ford was spewing red ink at an unprecedented rate. A division quality manager hired Deming to bring the Japanese miracle to Detroit. Eventually the quality movement percolated throughout the automotive industry, and today it might be hard to find much of a difference in fit and finish between any manufacturer. Tellingly, Ford abandoned "Quality is Job One" as a mantra in 1998. The products demonstrated their success and marketing slight of hand was no longer needed to dodge an inconvenient truth.
Lean manufacturing perhaps got its name from a 1989 book (Lean Thinking by James Womack and Daniel Jones) but its roots trace back to at least Ben Franklin and later to Henry Ford.1 Waste means there's a problem in the process, whether the waste is from rework (errors) or practices that lead to full garbage pails. Wastage is a sure indicator that something is wrong with any process. And it's an equally vital red flag that a software development group is doing something wrong.
For some reason, the lean revolution by and large hasn't made it into software engineering. Bugs plague our efforts, and are as expected as any other work product. Most projects get bogged down in a desperate debugging phase that can consume half the schedule. I guess that means we can call the design and coding line items the "bugging" phase.
When in 1796 Edward Jenner rubbed cowpox on eight-year-old James Phipps' arms, he wasn't fixing a fever; the boy was perfectly healthy. Rather, Jenner knew some 60% of the population was likely to get smallpox and so was looking for a way to prevent the disease before it occurred. That idea was revolutionary in a time when illness was poorly understood and often attributed to vapors or other imaginary effects of devils or magic.
The pre-Jenner approach parallels software engineering with striking similarity. The infection is there; with enough heroics it might be possible to save the patient, but the toll on both the victim and doctor leaves both weakened. Jenner taught us to anticipate and eliminate sickness. Lean manufacturing and the quality movement showed that defects indicate a problem with the process rather than the product. Clearly, if we can minimize waste the system will be delivered faster and with higher quality.
In other words, cut bugging to shorten debugging. The best tool we have to reduce bugging is the code inspection.
Over the last 10 years, I've mentioned code inspections in passing in this column some 33 times, yet haven't written anything substantive about them since August, 1998.2 Many of our readers were still in high school back then!