The rapid growth in cellular networks and network devices has led to severe impact on the environment. The number of subscribers and the demand for cellular traffic has grown exponentially.
With the advent of technologies such as iPhone, Android, 3G Networks more number of people use Cellular network for data transmission. The technical drawbacks of current cellular networks include:
1. Most of the cellular network techniques tend to maximize throughput, bandwidth, QOS without paying any attention on energy consumption by network devices.
2. Most of the network devices are not utilized at their full capacity except the peak hours due to which the power consumed by these devices is wasted.
Green networking represents a new era of communication where we can greatly improve energy –efficiency and resource efficiency of the cellular network without compromising the quality of services for the users.
In this paper, we present a brief survey on techniques to enhance the power efficiency of the cellular network. On the basis of recent studies it seems that base stations consume a major part of the energy in the cellular system.
We put forward a few techniques to minimize the energy consumption with the energy efficient hardware design like power saving via sleep mode and network self organizing methods that involve cell zooming, and multilayered cellular architecture.
Lastly, this paper also includes a brief survey of the enabling technologies such as cognitive radio, MIMO, Femtocells and cooperative relaying.
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