This paper introduces networking techniques and technologies that are particularly relevant to embedded systems. Technical issues that will be discussed include medium access methods, speed, determinacy, communication reliability, and network failure modes. As
examples, the characteristics of several embedded controller networking technologies will be considered, including ARCNET, Ethernet, Intel's BITBUS, Echelon's LON, and Cimetrics Technology's NSP. Finally, the characteristics of nine-bit asynchronous serial protocols will be discussed in some detail.