Personal astable multivibrator teardown -

Personal astable multivibrator teardown

Valentines Day special: Ever wonder what makes a personal astable multivibrator tick? Here's a teardown.

This site has hosted teardowns of a number of consumer devices such as tablets, TVs, and mobile phones.

The personal
astable multivibrator.
Click on image to

But plenty of other products in common use rely on a bit of programmability to gain extra features and functionality.

The personal astable multivibrator is one popular product with a long pedigree, and it too has been enhanced by the addition of a CPU. The datasheets for these devices are notoriously incomplete. It's rare to find technical specifications such as translation in thousands of an inch, frequency settings, and current consumption. A suitable unit was procured and brought into the lab for analysis.

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On the unit being evaluated the processor interacts with the user via two buttons that select one of a number of oscillatory options and an end effector that mimics the action of a random orbital sander. The buttons are slightly recessed to eliminate accidental changes in operating parameters due to potentially distracted users.

Evaluators noted the sealed design and O-ring around the battery compartment, suggesting the unit is designed for harsh environmental conditions.

However, when an unused unit was disassembled, the PCB was found to be covered with contamination from soldering and handling.

Click on image to enlarge.

A corner of the PCB under a microscope showing contamination.

Interestingly, the vendor suggests applying lubricating oils to the exterior surfaces of the device; apparently internal components are lubricated for life.

Using a dial indicator the typical back and forth translation was measured. The end effector was removed as the indicator's probe tended to ride into the soft material (measured at 1.5 on the Rockwell C Hardness Scale). Translation, on the maximum vibratory setting, was measured at 0.015″ peak-to-peak.

Click on image to enlarge.

Test setup to measure displacement.

Battery life is an important consideration for these types of consumer devices but it was difficult to ascertain due to the paucity of subjects willing or able to undertake long-term data collection runs; most subjects ended the experiment prematurely. Therefore dynamic response was investigated by measuring the power supply current (consisting of a single AA alkaline cell supplied with the unit). While off, experimenters noted a parasitic drain of 2.5 µA indicating that the CPU is in a sleep mode. (Some low-power devices completely disconnect from the power source by removing the bias from a MOSFET in series with the power supply.)

An oscilloscope measured supply current while the unit operated in the maximum vibratory setting, which averaged approximately 0.13 amps RMS. Given that a typical alkaline AA has 2,700 mAh capacity, one could expect about 21 hours of operation. However, most AAs are specified to an end-voltage of 0.8V, which may be below the minimum required by the CPU. Further experimentation is encouraged to profile this parameter.

Oscillation frequency is an important characteristic of any astable multivibrator. Experimenters were surprised to find that the frequency was approximately 1,000 Hz (with a standard deviation of 180 Hz) regardless of vibratory setting. The buttons select variations in amplitude, rather than frequency.

Click on image to enlarge.

Voltage drop across a 0.25-ohm resistor indicates frequency of operation.

The distorted signal is presumably due in part to the reactance of the motor.

As is usual in product teardowns, we investigated the electronics. A small PCB with very few components resides opposite the end effector. Components include an MCU, a transistor package that drives the motor, dual switches to select vibratory setting, a diode (probably to clip inductive motor spikes), and a few discrete devices.

Click on image to enlarge.

The printed circuit board

Researchers were unable to identify the MCU. An 8-pin device, it must operate on a single AA's nominal 1.5-volt level, and presumably to some voltage below that as the battery discharges. Few microcontrollers will operate below 1.8V. It is entirely possible that this is a four-bit device.

Click on image to enlarge.

MCU under microscope.

Although the datasheet is silent about this, the end effector is secured by a 7/16-14 screw thread, suggesting a wide range of uses. Researchers welded a 3/8″ to 1/2″ socket adapter to a 7/16-14 nut to facilitate the use of the personal astable multivibrator in a shop environment.

Click on image to enlarge.

3/8″ to 1/2″ socket welded to a 7/16-14 nut.

In one application, it was found that the personal astable multivibrator could function as a torque wrench, and indeed several garages near our lab in Finksburg, MD now use these to eliminate long air hoses. Mechanics find they can keep the units in their shop aprons, though their bosses report a fairly high loss rate, especially come Monday mornings.

Click on image to enlarge.

Loosening lug nuts with the personal astable multivibrator.

No doubt other uses are possible as well.

Stay tuned for an upcoming analysis of a personal monostable multivibrator (AKA “one shot”).

Jack G. Ganssle is a lecturer and consultant on embedded development issues. He conducts seminars on embedded systems and helps companies with their embedded challenges, and works as an expert witness on embedded issues. Contact him at. His website is .

7 thoughts on “Personal astable multivibrator teardown

  1. Thanks Jack, this is the awesomest article I've ever read on

    This does beg the question: how exactly did you “procure” the said device? Hmmmm. 😉

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  2. ROTFL. This is a hoot!

    Interesting that despite the paucity of subjects, you were able to achieve some number 'N' large enough for you to feel confident enough to roll into a subsequent statement saying, “most subjects….” It must not have been too sma

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  3. Excellent article. However, it seems the manufacturer is rather sloppy in
    the quality control department. It would seem this might be advertised as
    a medical device. I would like to see their V&V specs.

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