Practical Real-Time Schedulers

Real-time is not a synonym for “real-fast”. Contrary to popular opinion,   making everything “real fast” won't necessarily make a real-time program work correctly. A much better synonym is “on time” since, in a real-time program, certain events must happen at a specific time. Making input and output events happen “on time” is pretty straightforward if you have only one I/O path to worry about. But real-time programs, especially embedded real-time systems, are often also multi-tasking programs. Most real-world, real-time programs are expected to simulate several pieces of simultaneously operating hardware.

When analyzing a project that is both multi-tasking and real-time, the designer must recognize that some tasks are less urgent than others. For each real-time task, “on time” may have a different meaning, depending upon the time constraints associated with that particular task. A continuously running built-in self-test, for example, usually runs without any time constraints, even if it is testing a real-time system. Some real-time events may need to happen at a specific wall-time; others at a specific interval from some external event. The real-time program must properly balance these varying needs at every instant, under every Imaginable combination of input conditions.

This article will show how an appropriate general purpose scheduler can significantly reduce the design complexity in such programs and also significantly increase your confidence in the feasibility of the design even before you write any significant amount of code.

ESC_1991_Vol2_Page717_Ward – Practical Real-Time Schedulers.pdf

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