In our previous article, we discussed how agile, adaptable and future-proof development allows developers to manage multiple sources of data in today’s Internet of Things. Now, we’ll put those philosophies into practice with the development cross-platform user interfaces (UIs).
Engineering software projects are never simple, and they get very complex with embedded development. Developers must navigate around not only desktop, mobile and web applications, but also through several operating systems and various hardware specific aspects from screen resolutions and aspect ratios to hardware-specific drivers.
Developers who fail to efficiently navigate these will find themselves retracing their steps and delaying time to market. To avoid this, here are a few ways an application development framework helps developers build cross-platform applications.
Simplify and Streamline Development
There are three key criteria for successful cross-platform development:
Have an efficient, cost-effective way to write code
Have the ability to write, deploy, debug and test on different environments (hardware and operating system) at the same time
Maintain a fast time to market
Developers benefit greatly when they use cross-platform technologies such as Qt API’s, QML, HTML5 and others to meet these criteria. Cross-platform technologies enable developers to reuse code from one platform to another. This is especially the case when developers retarget their projects for embedded applications. In this case, the development target is an embedded device; however, this doesn’t mean that your development environment needs to be on an embedded device.
Cross-platform technologies allow developers to start with more user-friendly, common engineering environments (see Figure 1). For example, a developer can use a Windows PC to develop and compile app. Then, using cross-compiling/deployment tools, the developer can then compile and execute the source code for the embedded target. Long story short, this process only takes one code for one project with multiple different targets.
Figure 1: Cross-platform development enables developers to maintain a streamlined workflow while deployed to custom hardware (Source: The Qt Company).
Maintain Productivity Across Platforms
Cross-platform development is not a one-size-fits-all project. Different platforms – desktop, mobile, embedded – run on different resources. For example, embedded devices typically have hardware resource constraints. Meanwhile, on the other side of the spectrum, desktop applications have constant circuit power, big screens and – when compared to embedded applications, an almost endless amount of memory and CPU.
With that, embedded developers often find themselves in a tug-of-war between getting the best out of their embedded hardware and providing their UI designers a nice, easy-to-use technology for UI design. These two requirements prove very difficult to combine into one application, which then impedes productivity.
Figure 2: Cross-platform technologies allow developers to develop applications in user-friendly environments before deploying them to a wide array of devices (Source: The Qt Company).
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Bridge the Gap Between Developers and Designers
Imagine a developer starting a new project for a new embedded device application on a Linux desktop. The developer’s company hasn’t yet ramped up manufacturing efforts, so device prototypes are hard to find. Development and testing cycles thus run into a wall until prototypes become available (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Development and testing cycles depend on the availability of prototypes from design cycles (Source: The Qt Company).
A cross-platform framework often provides work-arounds for these challenges, as they include cross-platform APIs and functionalities. What this means is that developers can use other devices – perhaps a PC, tablet or previous versions of the device – as a development platform to perform the bulk of their work before testing on prototypes and final hardware. Better yet, as mentioned earlier, developers can develop in their desktop platforms first and then throw the draft project onto the embedded device when it’s ready.
Cross-platform APIs are also useful when dealing with business requirements and needs. For example, management may provide a new platform, device or operating system that they need developers to work with. Instead of ramping up for each platform, device or OS, developers with cross-platform frameworks already have the cross-platform APIs taken care of. Developers can then build applications for all kinds of different targets, promoting time to market and taking productivity into their own hands.
On top of all this, designers also need to contribute to UI development. Oftentimes, designers create a robust UI on Photoshop, Illustrator or another design suite, but then they run into challenges as they work with the developer to mimic that interface in a programming environment. This also slows down the project with each and every iteration and update.
Next-generation cross-platform frameworks will provide environments for rapid UI creation. New tools will allow designers to work with the tools they’re comfortable with – Photoshop, Illustrator, etc. – and then directly share those files with developers. Developers will be able to directly access these files and input them into programming environments. This allows designers and developers to work iteration by iteration with automatic updates to the file from either side.
So, What’s Next?
The future is bright for today’s developers. Next-generation tools and frameworks will keep developers adaptable and agile as they create applications for an exponentially growing number of IoT devices. These innovations will also streamline development workflows within a company, allowing developers, designers and others to do what they do best and come together to create cutting-edge applications for embedded devices and beyond.
Santtu Ahonen works in The Qt Company as product manager of the Qt for Device Creation. Santtu has over 20 years of experience in product management on various high technology products including Nokia Maemo as Head of Developer Offering Product Management where Qt was essential part of the plan. Santtu joined back in to Qt technology and The Qt Company in spring 2017.